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Learn More. The aim of this study was to determine the optimal frequency of combined aerobic and resistance training for improving muscular strength MScardiovascular fitness CFand functional tasks FTs in women older than 60 years. Sixty-three women were randomly ased to 1 of 3 exercise training groups. Repeated-measures analysis of variance indicated a ificant time effect for changes in MS, CF, and FT, such that all improved after training.
However, there were no ificant training group or training group 3 time interactions. Disability rates among adults aged 65 years or older showed a steady decline during the s; however, since the beginning of the 21st century, activities of daily living ADL disabilities have begun to gradually increase According to the U. Routine exercise is perhaps the most effective strategy to increase functional independence and reduce the prevalence of age-associated diseases 5.
It is well established that aerobic exercise training AET improves cardiovascular fitness CFand resistance exercise training RET le to improvement in muscle mass and strength in older adults 59 In addition to cardiovascular and skeletal muscle physiological improvements, regular exercise has also been shown to reduce the incidence of dementia, falls, osteoporosis, obesity, and delay the onset of age-associated cognitive decline 12931 A meta-analysis performed by Baker et al.
Although it was ly suggested that combining strength training with endurance training can compromise strength development 81618recent investigations in older adults have shown that combined resistance and endurance training can lead to similar or greater gains in muscular strength MS and CF as compared with RET or AET alone 1723 Izquierdo et al.
They found that AET alone and combined resistance and endurance training resulted in similar increases in V. However, only combined resistance and endurance training improved load carrying walk performance These findings suggest that a training program consisting of a combination of AET and RET may be an effective way to improve overall health, fitness, and ADL in older adults. Combined AET and RET training may be an effective means of training; however, the potential for inadequate recovery and excessive stress on the body cannot be disregarded.
Performing either RET or AET alone at high intensities or volume can impair strength or aerobic fitness gains in older adults 22 and has been shown to reduce free living nontraining physical activity NEAT The decrease in NEAT may occur because of training-induced fatigue As ly described by Baker et al. With this in mind, the potential for overstress in older adults may be increased dramatically in combined training programs where time and energy must be spent in training 2 divergent energy systems.
Training too frequently may not allow enough time for recovery and may induce chronic fatigue and inhibit optimal training adaptations. However, not training frequently enough may reduce potential for improved fitness.
Although a training frequency of at least 2 times per week has generally been considered to be the minimum training stimulation necessary to obtain either aerobic or strength adaptations 5a recent investigation combining 1 day per week of AET and 1 day per week of RET suggest that this may be just as good for improving strength and aerobic fitness as more frequent training Given the detrained state of many older adults, it is possible that substantial and similar improvements in strength and endurance may be observed with lower volumes of training.
Furthermore, if a single session per week is shown to be as effective as multiple sessions per week for eliciting improvements in muscle strength and CF, it is likely that individuals would enhance exercise participation and adherence to training. Therefore, the aim of this study was, while keeping individual training session volumes constant, to compare the effects of different combined training frequencies and thus total volume of aerobic and resistance training for improving MS, CF, and ease of ADL in postmenopausal women older than 60 years.
We hypothesize that group 2 2 times per week aerobic and 2 times per week resistance training will improve more on MS, CF, and ease of ADL after 16 weeks of exercise training than the other 2 groups. Subjects were randomly ased to 1 of 3 exercise training groups. Group 1 trained 2 times each week one aerobic and the other resistance on nonconsecutive days, group 2 trained 3—4 days each week 2 aerobic and 2 resistanceand group 3 trained between 4 and 6 days each week 3 aerobic and 3 resistance.
Because of equivalent recruitment criteria for the proposed study, the 3 groups were comparable in every regard, except for the frequency of training. To improve adherence, subjects in groups 2 and 3 were allowed to have combined aerobic and resistance training sessions on the same day. Subjects in group 2 were allowed 1 combined training session each week, and subjects in group 3 were allowed 2 combined training sessions each week. Both groups 2 and 3 were required to have at least 1 training session each week in which only aerobic and only resistance training are performed.
Each group performed their prescribed training of a combination of resistance and aerobic training for 16 weeks. Muscular strength, CF, functional task FTand body composition measurements were made pretraining and 16 weeks posttraining. If a session was missed because of sickness, injury, or personal reasons, the session was made up until 16 weeks of training was achieved, at least 3 consecutive weeks of training was achieved before posttraining measurements. We have illustrated this in the flow diagram Mature housewives in Birmingham Alabama wi Figure 1.
All testing was done in the morning, between and hours, after an overnight fast. Verbal encouragement was used for all tests. Women engaging in structured exercise or already performing weight training exercise or routine walking were excluded from the study. Preliminary screening for study inclusion included a physical examination, dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry DEXAand a lead electrocardiogram ECG.
Participants were excluded from the study if they were hypertensive, displayed any abnormal ECG responses at rest or during exercise, or DEXA assessment revealed osteoporosis. Subjects had no history of heart disease or diabetes mellitus. Subjects were nonsmokers and were not taking medications known to affect energy expenditure, insulin level, heart rate HRor thyroid function. The study was approved by the Institutional Review Board, and all women provided informed consent before participating in the study.
Anthropometric and body composition changes pretraining and 16 weeks posttraining by exercise group.
Before pretraining strength measurement, 2 exercise sessions within the first week were used to familiarize the subjects with the movement patterns of the exercise. The maximum amount of weight that could be lifted once 1 repetition maximum [RM] was measured for leg press, knee extension, hamstring curl, bicep curl, chest press, and shoulder press. Measurement of 1 RM was done using ly reported methods Briefly, after a warm-up, subjects lifted progressively heavier weights until 2 consecutive failures occurred. The 1 RM of leg press, knee extension, and hamstring curl were averaged to provide an overall index of lower-body strength, whereas the bicep curl, chest press, and should press were averaged to provide an overall index of upper-body strength.
Maximum oxygen uptake V. Subjects warmed up for 4 minutes at a speed of 3 mph on a 2. The highest V. Coefficient of variability for V. Five FTs were selected to mimic commonly performed activities of older adults in a free-living condition. The tasks were performed in the same order for each test condition to avoid potential bias.
The best trial for each FT was used in the statistical analyses. The submaximal V. Subjects were instructed to walk forward and backward over a ft course and were timed concurrently Proper technique included walking heel to toe as fast and as safely as possible. One practice trial and 2 test trials for each direction were performed. The intraclass correlation coefficient ICC was 0. Each subject was timed with a stopwatch as they walked over a straight ft expanse of floor. To allow for acceleration and deceleration, the course included 15 extra feet, both ahead of and at the end of the ft distance that was marked and measured.
Subjects were instructed to walk as fast and as safe as possible through the course 220 Two test trials were administered. The ICC for this test was 0. Subjects performed a modified stair climb test Each subject was allowed to maintain contact with the handrail throughout the test if desired or could grab the handrail at any time during the test. The use of the handrail was for safety, but subjects were not allowed to pull themselves forward during the test using the handrail. Two trials were performed and timed. Subjects were instructed to sit in Mature housewives in Birmingham Alabama wi middle of a chair positioned against a wall with back straight, feet flat on the floor, and arms crossed at the wrists and held against the chest.
Before testing, each subject was allowed to practice 1 or 2 stands to ensure proper form. Each supervised training session included 3—5 individuals. The duration of the resistance exercise sessions was approximately 60—90 minutes; this included a brief warm-up and to minute lower- and upper-body resistance training sessions.
Each exercise session began with a 3-minute warm-up on either a treadmill or cycle ergometer at low intensity. Subjects performed the following resistance training exercises: squats, leg press, leg extension, hamstring curl, bench press, military press, elbow flexion, and triceps extension. Briefly, the loaded explosive concentric squats were performed on a plate-loaded squat machine. Once at this position, the explosive vertical jump would ensue. The means Mature housewives in Birmingham Alabama wi SD s for all quantitative data were calculated for each group.
Overall comparisons of the change in MS, aerobic capacity, and FTs by group were performed using repeated-measures analysis of variance. Pearson correlation analysis was used to examine associations between changes in strength, V. Anthropometric and body composition data of the participants pretraining and weeks posttraining are shown in Table 1. The cumulative of upper- and lower-body changes in strength are shown in Figure 2. A and B Changes in upper- and lower-body strength after 16 weeks of training. Aerobic capacity, functional tasks, and strength changes pretraining and 16 weeks posttraining by exercise group.
There was a ificant ime effect for V. Each training group had an increase in V. Each of the groups performed ificantly better as compared with pretraining assessments. The V.Mature housewives in Birmingham Alabama wi
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Combined Aerobic/Strength Training and Energy Expenditure in Older Women